Virginia Waterleaf vs. Great Waterleaf

How do you distinguish Virginia and great waterleaf plants in the early spring? Swink & Wilhelm (1994):

1. Leaves predominantly pinnately compound or lobed, divided into 5 to 7 lobes or leaflets. . . . . Hydrophyllum virginianum
1. Leaves predominantly palmately lobed, or some with a small pair of pinnae at the base:

Calyx lobes copiously pilose, with conspicuous, reflexed processes in the sinuses; stems usually densely pilose or pubescent; biennial. . . . . . . . Hydrophyllum appendiculatum
Calyx lobes glabrous or sparsely hispidulous, without processes in the sinuses; stems glabrous or nearly so; perennial. . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrophyllum canadense

Welp, turns out the early spring rosettes of Hydrophyllum appendiculatum are pinnately compound, not palmately compound. So, that key’s only helpful for mature plants. Never fear, here are a bunch of comparison photos:
The early spring, basal leaves of Virginia waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) and great waterleaf (Hydrophyllum appendiculatum), side-by-side:

Singular leaves of Hydrophyllum virginianum (left, view on iNaturalist) and Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (right, view on iNaturalist).
Look how much more rounded the edges are in great waterleaf, how much fuzzier the stem is, and how much more variegation there is.
hydrophyllum-virginianum-virginia-waterleaf hydrophyllum-appendiculatum-great-waterleaf
In situ rosettes of Hydrophyllum virginianum (left) and Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (right)
hydrophyllum-virginianum-virginia-waterleaf-close hydrophyllum-appendiculatum-great-waterleaf-close
Hydrophyllum virginianum (left) and Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (right)

Hydrophyllum canadense is not really found in my area (northcentral Illinois), so I don’t have any photos of that at all, much less in a rosette stage. If this photo can be believed, it looks like it has significantly wider lobes even as a rosette, and a more geometric appearance overall. I’d guess its petioles are not as fuzzy as H. appendiculatum as well (see key above).

This post inspired by my error – mistaking a basal H. appendiculatum leaf as H. virginianum.

Maramech Phenology

phenology (n): study of the influence of climate on recurring natural phenomena
1881, from German (phänologisch, Karl Fritsch, 1853) from Latin phaeno-, from Greek phaino-, from phainein “to show”

Show yourselves, little plants of Maramech Forest Preserve! It’s early April, time for some of you to wake up.

Phenology of Skunk Cabbage and Marsh Marigold
Hello skunk cabbage & marsh marigold. Laying low this year after last year’s early arrival eh?

Maramech Forest Preserve Ribes black currant gooseberry phenology bud burst
Hello extremely small currant leaves. Welcome back after your hibernation. I hope it was comfortable inside of those leaf buds.

Maramech Forest Preserve Viburnum lentago nannyberry phenology bud burst flower buds
Hello Viburnum flower buds. When you burst you look like brains.

The following plants are spring ephemerals.
These guys live in woodlands and bloom early in the year before the tree leaves come out.
That way, they can take advantage of the higher sunlight levels.

Maramech Forest Preserve Trillium leaves mosaic phenology
Hello tiny trillium leaves. You have an exquisite mosaic.

Maramech Forest Preserve cutleaf toothwort Cardamine
Hello cutleaf toothwort?

Maramech Forest Preserve Claytonia virginica spring beauty
Hello baby spring beauty?

Maramech Forest Preserve Dicentra
Hello tiniest Dicentra spp. flowers I’ve ever seen.

Maramech Forest Preserve Dicentra
Are you a squirrel corn or a Dutchman’s breeches? If I’d looked at your bulblets I’d know.
Anyhow, your foliage is already magnificent.

Maramech Forest Preserve waterleaf Hydrophyllum
Hello little waterleaf. Nice spots.